Have you migrated from Sitecore 8.x to 9?
This error is being caused due to a redesign of rule set in Sitecore 9. I had the same issue and got the following response from Sitecore support:
This error looks related to the fact that the rule set has been
redesigned in Sitecore 9.0, therefore if you have upgraded to the
latest version of Sitecore from any 8.x version, you must update all
of your custom filters. You do this by setting and configuring new
rules in the new rule set. Every rule that was available by default in
Sitecore 8.x has a new matching rule in the Rule Set Editor in
Sitecore 9.0. If you do not update your custom filter to use new
rules, the Reporting database cannot aggregate any visits from
contacts and your reports will not show any data. For more details
please see the following topic:
Please note that because filters and rules are dependent on a segment,
after you update your custom filter to use new rules, you must also
redeploy all segments that use the filter with the new rule.
Based on the error dump you attached, the issue is being caused by the following filters that were in Sitecore 8.2, but not in 9:
These filters are referencing the following segments:
You have two options:
1) Follow the instructions above for all the filters and update the rules to use the new Sitecore 9 rules and then re-deploy the segments.
2) If you are not using those filters, you can delete the filters as well as the dimension and re-deploy marketing definitions. You may have to clear all tables in your ReferenceData database and then a re-deploy the marketing definitions (a simple deploy of marketing definitions did not remove the deleted dimension/segments for me).