Is it possible with Sitecore 9 Forms to create logic jumps based on a user's answer to a question? For example, a user answers question 1 with a particular answer choice; as a result, I want that user to skip ahead to step 4 in the form (since Sitecore has multi-step forms). I see the actions by default have previous and next (and submit) but is there a way to address this type of flow?
No, using OOTB functionality it is not possible to skip sections of a form based on user input.
The multi-page wizard in Sitecore 9 Forms is "dumb", it only allows you to proceed next or previous and is not context aware and there is currently to logic integration to allow you select the rules for which section could be skipped (the WFFM module integrates with the Rules Engine to allow you to set logic to carry out some actions for example).
There is talk of this sort of functionality being made available in a future release, but no official roadmap has been released.