First of; there is no single "Sitecore Project". There is your solution, and that's what Helix addresses.
As to where to place "business logic" - you use a generic term, when a specific one is required. Helix advocates breaking things down into logical groupings (modules). So if you were to say, develop some Newsletter functionality (as mentioned in another answer here) - that would logically group into a "Newsletter" feature.
This feature would (maybe) be a single project. Inside that you would have your view files, your controller renderings and so on. But you would also have your INewsletterService or whatever else information structure your newsletter is built upon.
It's also likely that, if not now then later, some of that newsletter functionality would be pushed down into the Foundation layer. Like the actual mechanics of sending a mail, for instance - which could have uses elsewhere in your solution. Like sending a registration confirmation mail or whatever it may be.
So you group related stuff together, that's (you know... simplified) what Helix is about.