You mentioned in comments that you're getting an error—this is because there is no tag in my docker hub repository. I wouldn't know which version of Sitecore latest should be build against: 8.2 or 8.1 update 3, and on the top of that, which version of SolR. So I choose to go with the tag 8.2.
So you would have to pull it with the following command:
docker pull istern/solr-sitecore:8.2
I will create a latest when I have the time so it is easier to pull, so a big sorry that this wasn't clear from the beginning.
Now in regards to running the entire Sitecore setup in a Docker container, you would have to switch to using a Windows container. Note that the Solr container I built is a Linux version.
So to answer the initial question, you would have to install the latest beta of Docker found here, choose "Beta":
Make sure your Docker is using Windows containers, and you are running on windows 10 latest update.
And yes i have a version Sitecore 8.2 running in docker using Lucene, Windows, Mongo, Sql Express 2016.
You cant mix Linux and Windows containers yet.
Pbering did a post on setting up Docker and Sitecore. You can find it here:
I'm also working on a post on this but this is still just a work in progress.
There is a windows mongo image created microsoft see it here