Unfortunately, Sitecore does not try to resend emails that were a failed dispatch because of scenarios like the one posted above.
However, all is not lost. If you can identify the Contacts that filled out the form and export that form data to a CSV file, you can create a Contact List based on an imported CSV file of email addresses that didn't receive the email.
The process is as follows:
Create the Contact List imported from a CSV file using this command.
Go to Marketing Automation and Create a Simple Automation that includes only a "Send Email" action. Chose the same Automated Email that the Sitecore Form uses.
Under Campaign Details in the Automation Plan, make sure that you only allow 1 enrollment to the plan per contact. This also prevents you from accidentally importing the same contact twice.
Last but not least, Enroll Contacts by Contact List, by choosing that option from the drop-down menu.
Once this is done, Active and Run the Automation Plan, and soon those contact will receive that Email Campaign and all of the analytics and click-tracking that you need will also be in the right spot.