Sitecore has two selections for topologies out of the box: XP Single (XP0) or XP Scaled. See here for details.
When you provision these topologies via market place, in essence you are executing these ARM templates which in my opinion are fairly extensible / modifiable.
The roles you've mentioned (Cortex Processing, Cortex Reporting, MA Ops, MA Reporting) ...
Looking at the code for that button in the TagContentCommand class, you need to use the IContentTaggingRunner to call that. Here is an example taken from the command class for that button:
public class MyTaggingClass
private readonly IContentTaggingRunner _contentTaggingRunner;
public MyTaggingClass(IContentTaggingRunner contentTaggingRunner)
There is an example in the documentation on how to invoke in your solution: https://doc.sitecore.com/developers/91/sitecore-experience-management/en/use-the-sitecore-cortex-content-tagging-framework-in-your-custom-solution.html
Get the ContentTaggingRunner and MessageBusFactory services as
var ContentTaggingRunner = ServiceLocator....