You are referencing Stempel filters which are needed for Czech and Polish. You need to copy lucene-libs/lucene-analyzers-stempel-X.Y.jar to solr_home/lib directory.
There are instructions on additional jars inside solr/contrib/analysis-extras/README.txt
Finally found the reason (thanks Sitecore support).
I use a custom search index that does not include the /sitecore/templates sub-tree.
Solution if you are not able to use POCO objects with field types and field names definition you should include this section in your index config (normally sitecore_master/web_index as value) and use exact field name ...
I am able to reproduce this issue if I delete the <field name="_nest_path_" type="_nest_path_" /> field definition in the managed-schema.xml file for the xdb and the xdb_rebuild indexes.
The schema for these two indexes is supposed to be nested. According to Solr documentation for the [child] transformer, when using this transformer, the parentFilter ...